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CHAPTER 1        Data Analysis and Systems Integration.   13
1-1:  Simulation of Space Shuttle with MATLAB programming. 13
1-2:  Numerical Analysis the Anchoring Discipline. 15
1-3:  Excel and MATLAB for Data Analysis. 17
1-4:  Large Modern Systems in the Evolution of the Digital Atomic Age. 18
1-5:  Differential Equations and Physics Have Taken a Bad Rap. 20
1-6:  Many Threads of Modern Technology Made the Technical Revolution. 23
1-7:  Sharing of Learning Theory. 24
1-8  Ups and Downs of UAV Testing by John Del Frate of NASA. 26
1-9:  Drilling with MATLAB Basics. 26

CHAPTER 2     The Digital Atomic Age  29
2-1:  Math led the technical world into the Digital with Linear Algebra. 31
2-2:  Some Things from “Optimization in Simulation Studies”. 31
2-3:  New on Minimization, Optimization, and Parameter Estimation? 33
2-4:  The Place of Equations in the Digital Revolution. 33
2-3:  From Nature to ADC. 33
2-4:  The Math of Motion is a Good Starting Place for the Technical. 34
2-5:  Digital and Digital Computers to Technical Applications of Computers. 36
2-6:  “Digital Signal Processing”. 37
2-7:  MATLAB, Path, and Workspace.  (D1) 39
2-8:  Plotting, Subplots, Axis and Labels.  (D2) 43
2-9:  Polynomial Algebra and Polynomial Roots.  (D3) 44
2-10:  Graphics and Descriptive Stats. (D4) 47

CHAPTER 3           Systems Integration.  53
3-1:  Cl, Cd, and Cm on selected Aircraft. 54
3-2:  Steady State Flight with Principles of Stability and Control. 57
3-3:  We can use the Transfer Function in MATLAB before the Theory. 59
3-4:  Trim Equilibrium as far as pitch when all moments at the C.G. are zero. 61
3-5:  Numerical Optimization and the Trim. m Program. 62
3-6:  Intro to Numerical Optimization. 64
3-7:  FMIN in MATLAB. 64
3-8:  FEVAL in MATLAB. 66
3-9:  The Steady-State Trim Algorithms. 68
3-10: Polynomials and Plotting (D1). 69
3-11: Matrices and Plotting (D2). 71

CHAPTER 4   UAVs and Other Flight Test Reports.   75
4-1:  The Altair/Predator B. 76
4-2:  Recent UAV Flight Test Experience at NASA, 1998. 77
4-3:  Flight Tests of the X-48B UAV between 2007 and 2008. 78
4-4:  AFTI/F-16 Flight Test Results and Lessons Learned. 81
4-5:  Aircraft Parameter Estimation. 86
4-6:  Graphics and Plot (D1). 90
4-7:  Flow control (D2). 90
4-8:  Plotting Complex Numbers and Function Plot (D3). 90
4-9:  Normal Distribution (D4). 90

CHAPTER 5           The Process.   91
5-1:  The 10 step Process of this book. 91
5-2:  The 10 step Process of Aerospace. 93
5-3:  The Process of Learning:  ILS. 93
5-4:  Historical PROCESS of The Digital Atomic Age. 94
5-5:  Math led the technical world into the Digital with Linear Algebra. 96
5-6:  The Place of Mathematical Equations in the Digital Revolution. 96
5-7:  Most Physical Phenomenon is Analog, Requiring ADC. 97
5-8:  The Math of Motion is a Good Starting Place for the Technical. 97
5-9:  Digital and Digital Computers & Applications of Computers. 97
5-10: Digital Signal Processing. 98
5-11: Evolution in Math Techniques for Engineering Applications. 100
5-12: Software, Firmware, and Digital Math. 100
5-13: The Process in CMMI. 101
5-14: The Process in “Embedded Systems Architecture”. 101
5-15: Global Hawk Unveiled the Process at work in UAVs. 102
5-16: Files/Directories, Handling Data, & External Programs (D1). 104
5-17: Fourier Transform (D2). 104
5-18: Plotting Polynomials with POLYVAL (D3). 104
5-19: Matrices of Data and Plotting (D4). 104

CHAPTER 6           Parameters and Data Analysis.   105
6-1:  Practical Aircraft Parameter Estimation. 107
6-2:  List of Parameters. 109
6-3:  Approach of NASA Report # NASA  TM-88281. 109
6-4:  Modern Minimization {Curve Fitting} Techniques. 111
6-5:  Cost Function, J or PI, for a Transport Aircraft. 113
6-6.  Basic Aircraft Parameters and Equations. 114
6-7:  The Cost Function, J. 115
6-8:  Cost Function in Model Methodology of Operations Research. 115
6-9:  FMINSEARCH of MATLAB, Nelder and Mead Simplex Algorithm. 115
6-10: Place of the Cost Function in Parametric Estimation. 115
6-11: MATLAB Program for Aircraft Trim plus. 115
6-12: Model Differencing Tool (D) 115

CHAPTER 7           Systems and Parameters.   117
7-1:  Ways to Model Linear Systems:  State-Space  and Transfer Function. 119
7-2:  Some history of State Space and the Transfer Function. 121
7-3:  Large Scale Digital Computer as Catalyst to Digital Atomic Age. 122
7-4:  The notions of State and Space. 123
7-5:  Linear Systems. 124
7-6   Background for Cl, Cd, and Cm. 125
7-7:  Coefficients from Flight Test versus Mach and Altitude. 126
7-8:  From Aerodynamic Coefficients to Aerodynamic Derivatives. 126
7-9:  Plot of Moment Coefficient Curve with a Negative Slope. 128
7-10:  Aerodynamic Derivatives Simply Mean the Use of Partial DEs. 129
7-11: Questions About Table 1 on Lift, Drag, and Moments. 129
7-12: Working with the Pendulum System in MATLAB. 130
7-13: Data In/Out, Printing, and Exporting Figures (D1). 130
7-14: Text in Graphics, Symbols and Greek Letters (D2). 130
7-15: Low Pass Filter and Log Plots (D3). 130
7-16:Trend Analysis (D4). 130

CHAPTER 8           Programming with MATLAB.   131
8-1.  Measurement of the Damping Roll (NASA Dryden). 131
8-2:  Study of Longitudinal Dynamic Stability in Flight. 132
8-3:  Files/Directories, Handling Data, & External Programs (D1). 132
8-4:  Fourier Transform (D2). 132
8-5: Plotting Polynomials with POLYVAL (D3). 132
8-6: Matrices of Data and Plotting (D4). 132
8-7:  Programming Simulation of a Transport Aircraft. 132
8-8:  The Use of Functions in MATLAB programming. 134
8-9:  The Transport Aircraft Simulation in C&S.  {Trim.m Program} 136
8-10: Examples of “cost function” in CONTROL AND SIMULATION. 139
8-11: Programming Input/Output in MATLAB. 143
8-12: Relational and Logical Operators. 143
8-13: Looping in MATLAB. 144
8-14: Control Flow Statements in MATLAB programming. 144
8-15: If-Else-If Statement in Programming. 144
8-16: Using Loops in Programming Missiles. 144
8-17: Function for [Mach,Qbar] = ADC(VT,H). 144
8-18: Program 8-1 to Calculate State Derivative Vector for Transport plane. 144

CHAPTER 9           Programming Optimization.   145
9-1:  Aircraft State and Parameter Identification. 145
9-2:  A Good Place to Introduce the Wing Standards of NACA. 146
9-3:  The three types of Numerical Optimization are repeated here: 146
9-1:  Zero routines in Optimization. 147
9-2:  MATLAB calls it “Optimization”. 148
9-3:  Optimization in MATHEMATICA. 150
9-4:  Optimization in the Excel Data Analysis ToolPak. 152
9-5:  Optimization in MINITAB. 152
9-6:  “Cost Function” in Mathematica. 152
9-7:  Cost Function is Often Called Performance Index. 153
9-8:  Two Experts on Optimization and Parameter Estimation. 153

CHAPTER 10   System ID.    155
10-1.  Basic Aircraft Parameters and Equations. 156
10-2:  The Cost Function, J. 157
10-3:  Cost Function in Model Methodology of Operations Research. 157
10-4:  FMINSEARCH of MATLAB, Nelder and Mead Simplex Algorithm. 157
10-5:  Place of the Cost Function in Parametric Estimation. 157
10-6:  MATLAB Program for Aircraft Trim plus. 157
10-7:  Modeling, Parameter Estimation, and System Identification? 157
10-8:  Statistics Toolbox of MATLAB vs Data Analysis ToolPak of Excel. 157
10-14:  Model Differencing Tool (D). 158

CHAPTER 11        Automatic Control   159
11-1:  Start with a Model of the Model. 159
11-2:  How Did We Get the transfer function for the Controller? 162
11-3:  “step(deltae*sys,t)” 163
11-4:  “rlocus(num,den)” and “rlocfind(num,den)” 163
11-5:  “[P,Z] = pzmap(num,den)”. 164
11-6:  “[y,z] = lsim(num,den,u,t]”. 164
11-7:  “[r,p,k] = residue(num,den)” 164
11-8:  “[num,den] = residue(r,p,k)” 164
11-9:  “sys1 = tf(num,den)” 164
11-10: “[A B C D] = tf2ss(num,den)” 164
11-11: “[re,im,w] = nyquist(num,den)” and “plot(re,im),grid”. 164
11-12: “[mag,phase,w] = bode(num,den)” 164
11-13: “margin(mag,phase,w)”. 164
11-14: “nichols(num,den,w)” and “ngrid”. 164

CHAPTER 12         Integrated Electronics:  Circuits and Systems.   165
12-1:  The Transfer Function makes this Evolution Process Evident. 166
12-2:  Modeling of Spring-Mass System and an LCR electronic Circuit. 166
12-3:  The PIDs, PD, and PI of today understandable with Circuits. 166
12-4:  Large Part of Digital Signal Processing is Circuits called Filters. 167
12-5:  From Circuits to LaPlace to Transfer Function. 167
12-6:  Select Electronic Circuits into Transfer Functions and Analysis. 167
12-7:  MATLAB for a “Gravity” function. 167
12-8:  MATLAB uses a lot of built in functions like “mean”. 168
12-9:  MATLAB Built-in Functions are in C:\MATLAB\toolbox\matlab\.. 170
12-9:  The Quadratic Equation function script with MATLAB. 171
12-10: Strings and FEVAL (D2). 171
12-11: Data Markers and Line Types (D3). 172
12-12: Linear Regression and Curve Fitting (D4). 172    

CHAPTER 13    Technical Integrated Learning.   173
13-1: Programming in MATLAB. 174
13-2:  Programming Weather Data. 174
13-3:  Some More Work with Input/Output. 175
13-4:  Input/Output in Aircraft Time-History Simulation. 178
13-5:  Programming the NLSIM.m for Aircraft time-histor simulation. 180
13-6: Methods of Aircraft State and Parameer Identification. 183
13-7: Measurement of the Damping Roll. 183
13-8:  Study of Longitudinal Dyanamic Stability in Flight. 184
13-9:  Creating Graphical User Interfaces in MATLAB (D1). 184
13-10: Guide for Drawing GUIs and “help unitools” (D2). 184
13-11: Function Discovery (D3). 184
13-12: Fourier Series (D4). 184
13-13: Arrays, Matrices, Vectors, and Data Types (D5). 184

CHAPTER 14           Matrix Manipulations.   191
14-1:  Differential Equations and Matrix Manipulations. 191
14-2:  Matrix Manipulations from Raytheon Training. 192
14-3:  Matrix Manipulations from MATLAB training and books. 192
14-4:  Linear Algebra and Vector Calculus from Math and MATLAB. 192
14-5:  Applied Physics of  Practical Differential Equations and Matrices. 192
14-6:  Equations of Electrical Circuits like Equations of Motion. 196
14-7:  Equations of Motion, Differential Equations of Matrix Manipulations. 198
14-8:  More Programming and Vectorized Computations (D1). 199
14-9:  Another Drill on Saving and Loading Data in Other Formats (D2). 200
14-10: INPUT, EVAL, FEVAL, Debugging, and Profiling (D3). 200
14-11: Subplots, Double Axis, and Labels (D4). 200
14-12: Progressing on Finess of Plots (D5). 200
14-13: Filters (D6). 200

CHAPTER 15           Applied Physics and Electronics.   201
15-1:  MATLAB and Simulink. 201
15-2:  Laplace Transform and Transfer Function. 202
15-3:  More RC Functional Networks with their TF(s) Equivalency. 205
15-4:  Programming the Motion of the Pendulum into MATLAB. 205
15-5:  RLC Circuit of Electricty also deals with physical motion. 206
15-6:  The TF to solve Motion Problems of an F-16 Accelerometr. 206
15-7:  The Spring Mass System Measures Acceleration of the F-16. 208
15-8:  Continuous Systems and Model for Bungee Jumping. 211
15-9:  Electromagnetic Spectrum, Microwaves, and Radar. 211
15-10: Load Line Analysis of an Electric Circuit (D1). 211
15-11: Time Series and Autocorrelaton (D2). 211
              
CHAPTER 16           From DEs to the Transfer Functions.   213
16-1:  Conversion of the DE to a Transfer Function Can be Done Directly. 214
16-2:  Applications of the Transfer Function. 215
16-3:  The Transfer Function. 217
16-4:  LaPlace Transform, parameters in s. 217
16-5:  State-Space Variable Equations. 218
16-6:  Solution of Second Order DE by State-Space. 220
16-6:  Concepts/Techniques Applied to the Electric Circuit. 221
16-7:  Program 5-1, MATLAB for the RLC Circuit of Figure 6-1. 223
16-8:  Put MATLAB to work for you! 224
16-9:  Damping and Natural Frequency with the Transfer Function. 224
16-10: Transfer Function and State-Space. 224
16-11: Fun Applications of TF to F-14 and F-16. 224

CHAPTER 17          MATLAB and Simulink.   233
17-1:  Blocks and Models of Simulink. 233
17-2:  Laplace Transform and Transfer Function. 235
17-3:  More RC Functional Networks with their TF(s) Equivalency. 237
17-4  The Pendulum, Programmed and Simulated with Simulink. 237
17-5  RLC Circuit of Electricty also deals with physical motion. 239
17-6:  The TF to solve Motion Problems of an F-16 Accelerometr. 239
17-7  The Spring Mass System Measures Acceleration of the F-16. 239
17-8:  Continuous Systems and Model for Bungee Jumping. 243
17-9:  More Programming and Vectorized Computations (D1). 243
17-10: Data Analysis. 243
17-11: Another Drill on Saving and Loading Data in Other Formats (D2). 243
17-12: Load Line Analysis of an Electric Circuit (D3). 243
17-13: Time Series and Autocorrelaton (D4). 243

CHAPTER 18          Applications of  The Transfer Function.    245
18-1:  The Boeing Aircraft Plant. 245
18-2:  What we need is some sort of Controller, An FCC. 246
18-3:  A Kp Controller. 247
18-4:  A PD or Pd Controller. 248
18-5:  The PID Controller. 248
18-6:  Simulation with Simulink (Flight of a Mission). 248
18-7:  Data Analysis of the Test Mission. 248
18-8:  Computation and Plotting of a Least-Squares Polynomial (D1). 248
18-9:  Numerical Evaluation of a Polynomial (D1). 248

CHAPTER 19        Equations of Flight   257
19-1:  Practical Equations of Motion for the Longitudinal Axis. 257
19-2:  We must Derive the Coefficients of Lift, Drag, and Moments. 260
19-3:  Numbers into the Equations of Motion. 260
19-4:  Some Equations Necessary for CL and CD calculations. 263
19-5:  Parameter Estimation and Modeling Save Our Hide. 265
19-6:  FS&AC summarize Equations of Motion  in 5 separate sets. 265
19-7:  Steady State Trim Program and the State Space Concept. 266
19-8:  A Definition of Steady State Flight. 266
19-9:  Life, Drag, and Moment Coefficients. 267
19-10: Lift, Drag, and Moment Coefficients in NASA reports. 268
19-11: Power for Steady State Flight. 268
19-12:  Flight Mechanics. 268

CHAPTER 20        Numerical Analysis   277
20-1:  POLYFIT and POLYVAL on CD versus altitude Curve Fit. 277
20-2:  Three Dimensinal Plot of CD versus Altitude and Mach Number. 279
20-3:  Three Dimensional Plot with Meshgrid. 279
20-4.  Aerodynamic Derivatives are simple Partial Differential Equations. 279
20-5:  Interpolation of F-16 Coefficients from Tables. 279
20-6:  Interpolation of the Boeing Longitudinal/Lateral Aerodynamic Data. 279
20-7:  More Integration for the Text. 279
20-8:  Must Have Routines to Continue on in this book. 279
20-9:  The cost function, J or PI, that we must Minimize. 280
20-10:  Numbers and the Newton-Raphson method. 282
20-11:  Interactive Solution in Linear Algebra and the Jacobi. 283
20-13: Error Analysis. 285
20-14:  Data Analysis. 285
1.  Integral Under a Curve by the Simpson Method. 285
2.  Numerical Analysis with the Newton-Rapson method. 285
3.  The Taylor Series Polynomial. 285
4.  The LaPlace Transform. 286

CHAPTER 21        Parameter Determination (Selection).   289
21-1:  Parameter Determination (Selection). 289
21-2:  Aircraft Motion and Control Variables. 291
21-3:  Combining Aircraft Parameters with Non-dimensional Coefficients. 292
21-4:  Categories of Coefficients by Aircraft Motion. 292
21-5:  The DATCOM User’s Manual and Computer Software. 293
21-6:  Parameter Coefficients. 294
21-7:  Inputs to the Digital Datcom Computer Program. 294
21-8:  Outputs. 295
21-9:  Output Sheet for Digital Datcom from the User’s Manual. 296
21-10:  DATCOM on the Boeing 737-100. 297
21-11:  Motion and Analysis. 297
1.  Stability and Control. 298
2. Center of Gravity and Neutral Point. 298
3.  Vtrim and Static Longitudinal Stability. 298
4.  A GENERIC TRIM Program. 298
5.  The Bulirsch-Stoer Polynomial Interpolation. 298
6.  Polyfit Finds Coefficients of the Polynomial. 298
7.  Newton’s Raphson Method of Numerical Analysis. 298

CHAPTER 22        Missiles, Trajectories, and Guidance   301
22-1:  A Missile Program and Data Analysis (Flight Mission #22-1). 301
22-2:  What the Table Looks Like. 306
22-3:  Error Analysis of Calculated Pressure Vs Standard. 308
22-4:  It is always easier to Analyze Data or A Routine with Plots. 309
22-5:  Cleaning Up the Plot. 309
22-6:  Motion and Analysis. 309
22-7:  Introduction to Handle Graphics (D1). 310
22-8:  GUIs (D2) 310
22-9:  Stem, Stairs, and Bar Plots (D3). 310
22-10: Time Series (D4). 310
22-11: GAINS (GPS Aided Inertial Navigation System)

CHAPTER 23        Telemetry Data Analysis   311
23-1:  Range and Airborne Instrumentation. 311
23-2:  IRIG. 312
23-3:  Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS). 312
23-4:  Motion and Analysis. 312
23-6:  Least Squares Approximation. 315
23-7:  Fourier Methods such as FFT (Fast Fourier Transform). 315
23-8:  Numerical Differentiation and Integration. 315
23-9:  Missile Test Mission #4, Data Analysis, and Test Report. 315

CHAPTER 24        Modern Automatic Control   317
24-1:  The Goal of Automatic Control is Stability of Flight. 317
24-2:  Longitudinal Stability in Flight Test. 318
24-3:  Flight Controls Enhanced by the Digital Revolution. 320
24-4:  A Working Knowledge of MATLAB  (Essentials Review of MATLAB). 321
24-5:  Modeling with MATLAB. 322
24-6:  The Famous PID Controller. 322
24-7:  MATLAB for Root Locus. 323
24-8:  Frequency Response with the Bode and Nyquist Plots. 323
24-9:  State-Space with MATLAB and Simulink. 324
24-10: Controller of a Digital Computer. 324
24-11: Review of Simulink Essential Basics for Automatic Control. 325
24-12: Model Based Design with Simulink. 325

CHAPTER 25        The Flight Control Computer (FCC).   327
25-1:  FBW. 327
25-2:  The Pitch Actuator Simulink Model of the F-14. 328
25-3:  Modified LTV Corsair actually first on Fly By Wire. 329
25-4:  Simultaneous Testing on AFTI and the X36 at NASA Dryden. 329
25-5:  The FCC of the AFTI F-16. 329
25-6:  F-16 Simulation in Straight and Level Configuration. 329
25-7:  Flight Control Computer. 329
25-8:  FCC as Classic Feedback Control System. 329
25-9: Analogies Between FCCs and the G-H Block Diagram. 331
25-10: Negative Feedback Control. 332
25-11: Transfer Functions of the AFTI FCC. 332
25-12: Feedback Control with an Inner Loop. 332

CHAPTER 26        Predicted versus Measured.   333
26-1:  R.A. Millikan’s, the Nobel Prize winning Physicist, on“ultimate truth”. 334
26-2:  Procedure of “Parameter Estimation”. 335
26-3:  NASA Test Reports Show a Trend of 1 Calculated and 3 Measured. 335
26-4:  Predicted versus Measured in Physics Lab Experiments. 335
26-5:  Motion and Analysis. 336
26-6:  Program to Calculate Cl, Cd, and Cm. 336
26-7:  Analysis of Flight Data from the AFTI/F-16. 336
26-8: MATLAB Program to Calculate Aerodynamic Derivatives. 338
26-9:  MATLAB Program to Calculate Cl, Cd, and Cm. 338
26-10: Methods for Ordinary Differential Equations. 338
26-11: The Saving and Loading of Data. 338
26-12: Plotting for Graphical Visualization. 338

CHAPTER 27        F-16 Simulation with FORTRAN and MATLAB   339
27-1:  Some Data Analysis of A Test on the F-14. 340
27-2:  Stability Analysis of This Flight Control System. 340
27-3:  The Actuator. 341
27-4:  Dynamic Characteristics of the Aircraft. 342
27-5:  From FORTRAN to MATLAB. 343
27-6:  Data and Data Analysis of F-16 Flight Test Mission #3. 344
27-7:  Variables, ADC, Engine, and Coefficients in Tables. 344
1.  State and Control Variables. 344
2.  Air Data Computer and Engine. 344
3.  Look up Tables for Aerodynamic Derivatives. 344
27-8:  Derivatives, State and Force Equations. 344
1.  Damping Derivatives. 344
2.  More on State Equations. 344
3.  Force Equations. 344
27-9:  Kinematics. 344
27-10: Moments. 344
27-11: Navigation and Outputs. 344
27-12: Functional Simulation Program for the F-16. 344
27-13: Simulations at NASA. 345
27-14: Simulator Study of F-16 Stall Characteristics. 345

CHAPTER 28           Flight Tests and the Process.   351
28-1:  Prime Differential Equation and the Process. 352
28-2:  Process Step #1:  The Problem to Calculate and Measure Stability. 353
28-3:  Step #2, A Sketch of the Problem with Parameters. 354
28-4:  Step #3, Equations to Predict Plane Flight Characteristics. 354
28-5:  Step #4, Program the Equations into MATLAB. 355
28-6:  Step #5, View and Analyze the Plots in MATLAB. 355
28-7:  Step #6, Simulate in MATLAB SIMULINK. 355
28-8: Animation of Flight Test for Step #7. 355
28-9: Flight Test (Step 8). 356
28-10: Data Analysis (Step 9). 356
28-11:  Flight Test Report (Step 10). 357
28-12:  Motion and Analysis. 357
28-13: Curve Fitting to Test Data. 359
28-14: Airfoil Data. 359
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